A new carbon resource, fuel and oil production, and syngas. Carbon does not alter vanilla oil (and it never will), except that it adds fuel values to the vanilla hydrocarbon fluids, so they can be burned as fluid. The new carbon resource, natural gas, runs parallel to vanilla crude oil during the green science phase, as it serves as a source of power and a weak source of petroleum gas, but no light or heavy oil. In the blue science phase, Fischer-Tropsch conversions and polymerization are used to produce oil and chemistry products from syngas and methane, and advanced natural gas processing provides a strong source of waste sulfur.
Natural gas can be burned directly or processed into methane and petroleum gas. The most efficient use for methane is to burn it as a fluid for power in the gas-fired boiler. Syngas is made in the Gasifier or through steam reforming of methane. I copied the flame stack graphic for the gasifier: thank you GotLag, and you're credited in the license. Syngas can be burned directly at a fuel value loss, converted in the refinery to oil products for a savings balanced against the coal liquefaction recipe, and used directly to produce some chemistry recipes.
There are a few settings. In the most complicated case, the player uses gas wellheads to mine natural gas, which then needs to be processed into fuel and products, and in the simplest case, the player produces petroleum gas directly from the natural gas resource patch using the vanilla pumpjack. I play with everything turned on. Syngas is available in any case.
Note that this mod adds a new mine-able resource to the game, because of which some advise to start a new game after installing this mod.
Adamomods will always be free and released into the public domain. If you've enjoyed my first set of mods, I have more planned, and improvements planned for the existing set. I am only limited by time. Consider donating to help me gain more time to make more mods: https://en.liberapay.com/Adamo/