The cryogenic energy storage mechanic is meant as an alternative to the accumulator mechanic that accompanies solar panels, as well as other variable energy generators that other mods might create.
Some design goals:
- more interesting to build (than fields of accumulators)
- more space efficient
- leverages standard Factorio fluid mechanics
- upgradeable by more research
- allow for decentralized energy generation as only need storage and turbines where power needed
- creates zero pollution where energy is consumed
After you get fluid mechanics, you can research Liquid air and create a condenser and turbine. While this will be much less energy efficient than accumulators, you will immediately be able to store energy, build solar fields, and move off of coal.
Condensers and turbines work similarly to accumulators as backup energy, so a condenser will only create liquid air if you have surplus energy, and turbines will only spin if production is not meeting energy demand.
Gradually you can upgrade this tech, build MK 2 and MK 3 versions of the condensers and turbines, and create large storage capabilities to meet the energy needs of your base.